Chemistry Department

Dr. Thomas E. Goodwin

Rwanda Day 2011, Chicago  Goodwin-Rwanda Day 2011

Elbert L. Fausett Distinguished Professor of Chemistry

Office: Acxiom Hall 213
Phone: (501) 450-1252
Fax: (501) 450-3829
E-mail: goodwin@hendrix.edu
  • Robert A. Welch Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow, Rice University
  • Ph.D., University of Arkansas
  • B.S., Ouachita Baptist University

Prospecting for Pheremones Via Green Solventless Extraction Techniques

elephant breedingAfrican Elephant (Loxodonta africana)
Collaboration with Dr. Bruce Schulte, Western Kentucky University


Maned WolfManed Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)
Collaboration with Dr. Nucharin Songasen, Smithsonian's Conservation Research Center, and Little Rock Zoo

BinturongBinturong (Arctictis binturong)
Collaboration with Dr. Christine Drea, Duke University

Kakapo goodKakapo (Strigops habroptilus)
Collaboration with Dr. Dianne Brunton and Anna Gsell, Massey University, Auckland, NZ, & Dr. Dave Greenwood, University of Auckland

Goodwin Orang-utanBornean Orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus)  
Collaboration with Dr. Graham L. Banes, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany; CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai, PRC; School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Henry Vilas Zoo, Madison, WI 53715  

"Our understanding of mammalian pheromones is limited, owing to the complexity of mammalian life and the mammalian brain. Mammals integrate information received by their various senses, and this enormously complicates efforts to understand any specific signal. In addition, interpreting the reaction to a signal can be difficult. The reactions of mammals are not automatic, and their behavior is not necessarily reproducible. Sometimes a pheromone produces no obvious response in a mammal. Perhaps the animal has ignored the signal, or perhaps it has learned something for future use. In general, behavioral studies on mammalian pheromones are much more extensive than chemical research." ---William C. Agosta. 1994 Using Chemicals to Communicate. Journal of Chemical Education. 71: 242-246. 

Research Adventures with Undergraduates and Other Mammals

I am a synthetic organic chemist who often masquerades as a chemical ecologist. The synthetic organic chemistry brain cells are focused these days largely on three projects: (1) the development of green chemistry experiments for the introductory organic chemistry lab. We are particularly interested in solventless reactions and reactions in or on water; (2) the enantioselective preparation of metabolites of the anti-coagulation drug, warfarin (Coumadin) to be used as standards in LC-MS as part of a study of human warfarin metabolism by Professor Grover Paul Miller in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; (3) using the Suzuki reaction of bromine-substituted isatins with various boronic acids, followed by N-acetylation and ring opening with methyl esters of amino acids or small peptides to provide glyoxylamide peptidomimetics to be tested as potential antibacterials.  This is in collaboration with Professors David Black and Naresh Kumar of the School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales (Australia).

The chemical ecology brain cells are involved primarily with a study of chemical communication, primarily among mammals.  These studies include the following animals (Biology collaborators): elephants (collaboration with Bruce Schulte, Western Kentucky University); binturongs (several types)  Christine Drea, Duke University; maned wolves (Nucharin Songsasen, Center for Species Survival, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute); kakapo (Anna Gsell/Diane Brunton, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand); Dave Greenwood (Auckland University); orang-utans;  Graham L. Banes (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany; CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai, PRC; School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI; Henry Vilas Zoo, Madison, WI.  Our chemical ecology analyses involve a solventless extraction technique (solid phase dynamic extraction; SPDE) in conjunction with GC-MS.

Please see the list of publications below, in which more information about our research can be found. Regardless of the exact nature or goal of our research, a primary objective is undergraduate education: teaching science by doing science. To date, over 140 undergraduate collaborators have worked on our various research projects full time in the summer and/or part time during the academic year. Virtually all of these students have presented the results of their research during at least one national scientific meeting and many have been co-authors on peer-reviewed scientific papers.

Summer Research Group 2010

  Goodwin Research 2010

Summer Research Group 2011

Goodwin Summer 2011

Summer Research Group 2012

Goodwin Summer Research 2012


Summer Research Group 2014
International House of Chemistry (IHOC) 1.0

Goodwin 2014 Summer Research edited


Summer Research Group 2015
International House of Chemistry (IHOC) 2.0

Goodwin 2015 Summer Research edited

Student Abstracts from ACS Spring 2015 National Meeting

Enantioselective synthesis and characterization of phase 1 warfarin metabolites
Robert Nshimiyimana1

*, Linda P. Desrochers1, Grover P. Miller2, and Thomas E. Goodwin1
1Department of Chemistry, Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas 72032; 2Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205

Coumadin (warfarin) is an anticoagulation drug for the treatment and/or prevention of thromboembolic events. Maintaining an optimal drug dose is challenging due to high inter-individual variability in patient response and a narrow therapeutic range. We use warfarin metabolite profiles from patients to improve understanding of the link between metabolism and treatment response. Phase 1 metabolism produces a variety of hydroxywarfarins which are converted to their glucuronide derivatives in Phase 2. We have prepared 6-, 7-, and 4’-hydroxywarfarins with ee >99% via an enantioselective, catalytic coupling. Borohydride reduction of the S-warfarin carbonyl produces two diastereomers, as does that of R-warfarin.  These “warfarin alcohols” are also produced in vivo. We have separated the four enantiomers via TLC. Taken together, these efforts provide a simple and effective route to generate critical enantiomeric standards for identifying biomarkers to help predict patient Coumadin dose-responses.

Green synthesis of spiropyrrolizidines from isatin, proline, and E-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-ones 
Justin C. Murdock
, Linda P. Desrochers, and Thomas E. Goodwin
Department of Chemistry, Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032

We are developing an experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory by adapting a literature procedure (K. Revathy and A. Lalitha, RSC Adv. 2014, 4, 279-285) that involves the concerted, suprafacial, [4S + 2S] cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide with a chalcone.  We replace the chalcone with an E-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one to simplify the NMR spectra.  An azomethine ylide is generated in situ via the decarboxylation of an iminium ion formed from the reaction of proline and isatin.  The product of this three-component condensation is a spiropyrrolizidine.  We are exploring options for speeding up the reaction while still using green chemistry, for example using microwave energy.  Spiropyrrolizidines have been found to have anti-cancer and anti-bacterial properties.

Synthesis of aspartame N-acetylglyoxylamides: A sweet reaction
Stephanie V. Hernandez1
, Aline Umuhire-Juru1, Linda P. Desrochers1, Naresh Kumar2, David StC. Black2, and Thomas E. Goodwin1.
1Department of Chemistry, Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas 72032; 2School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Cheah et al. have reported the synthesis of antibacterial peptidomimetics via ring opening of N-acetylisatins with amino acid methyl esters (or methyl esters of di- and tri-peptides) to produce glyoxylamides (Tetrahedron Lett. 2008, 49, 2965-2968; Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 7603-7610). N-Acylisatins are more reactive in this manner than are the corresponding isatins themselves as the C2 carbonyl moiety of the former behaves as an imide carbonyl as opposed to the conventional amide carbonyl of the latter. We are reacting a variety of N-acetylisatins with aspartame to prepare a new set of glyoxylamide peptidomimetics for antibacterial assays.

Synthesis of 5- and 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-acetylglyoxylamides 
Aline Umuhire-Juru1
, Stephanie Hernandez1, Linda P. Desrochers1, Naresh Kumar2, David StC. Black2, and Thomas E. Goodwin1
1Department of Chemistry, Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas 72032; 2School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Cheah et al. have reported the synthesis of antibacterial peptidomimetics via ring opening of N-acetylisatins with amino acid methyl esters (or methyl esters of di- and tri-peptides) to produce glyoxylamides (Tetrahedron Lett. 2008, 49, 2965-2968; Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 7603-7610). N-Acylisatins are more reactive in this manner than are the corresponding isatins themselves as the C2 carbonyl moiety of the former behaves as an imide carbonyl as opposed to the conventional amide carbonyl of the latter. We are using Suzuki-derived 5- and 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-acetylisatins and a variety of amino acid methyl esters to prepare new mono-glyoxylamide peptidomimetics.

Synthesis of 5- and 6-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-acetylglyoxylamides 
Nickie Ngo1
, Aline Umuhire-Juru1, Stephanie Hernandez1, Linda P. Desrochers1, Naresh Kumar2, David StC. Blac23, and Thomas E. Goodwin1
1Department of Chemistry, Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas 72032; 2School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Cheah et al. have reported the synthesis of antibacterial peptidomimetics via ring opening of N-acetylisatins with amino acid methyl esters (or methyl esters of di- and tri-peptides) to produce glyoxylamides (Tetrahedron Lett. 2008, 49, 2965-2968; Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 7603-7610). N-Acylisatins are more reactive in this manner than are the corresponding isatins themselves as the C2 carbonyl moiety of the former behaves as an imide carbonyl as opposed to the conventional amide carbonyl of the latter. We are using Suzuki-derived 5- and 6-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-acetylisatins and a variety of amino acid methyl esters to prepare new mono-glyoxylamide peptidomimetics for antibacterial assays.  

Synthesis of 5- and 6-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-acetylglyoxylamides 
Farai Musariri1
, Aline Umuhire-Juru1, Stephanie Hernandez1, Linda P. Desrochers1, Naresh Kumar2, David StC. Black2, and Thomas E. Goodwin1
1Department of Chemistry, Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas 72032; 2School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Cheah et al. have reported the synthesis of antibacterial peptidomimetics via ring opening of N-acetylisatins with amino acid methyl esters (or methyl esters of di- and tri-peptides) to produce glyoxylamides (Tetrahedron Lett. 2008, 49, 2965-2968; Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 7603-7610). N-Acylisatins are more reactive in this manner than are the corresponding isatins themselves as the C2 carbonyl moiety of the former behaves as an imide carbonyl as opposed to the conventional amide carbonyl of the latter. We are using Suzuki-derived 5- and 6-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-acetylisatins and a variety of amino acid methyl esters to prepare new mono-glyoxylamide peptidomimetics for antibacterial assays.

Honors, Professional Societies, and Responsibilities

      • Co-Editor of Chemical Signals in Vertebrates XIII, Springer Press (with Bruce Schulte, Head, Biology Dept., Western Kentucky University, and Mike Ferkin, Professor, Biology Dept., University of Memphis)
      • Co-Organizer (with Bruce Schulte) of the  Chemical Signals in Vertebrates Conference at the University of Illinois, July 2014 (meeting jointly with the International Society for Chemical Ecology); Organizer of a symposium entitled “The Role of Bacteria in Vertebrate Chemical Signaling: The Scents of Symbiosis”
      • Organized and spoke at symposium entitled “Searching for Chemical Signals in Vertebrates: Extractions from Biological Media as a Prelude to GC-MS Analysis”; Chemical Signals in Vertebrates conference, Berlin, Germany, August, 2011.
      • Attended CUR workshop “Gateways to Best Practices for Undergraduate Program Directors, June, 2011, Washington University.
      • Council on Undergraduate Research CUR Fellow Award, 2010 for undergraduate research leadership
      • 2008 Invited Speaker, Stanford University, William S. Johnson Symposium in Organic Chemistry
      • 2007 Recipient Pfizer-St. Louis Green Chemistry Research and Education Grant
      • One of six keynote speakers at Research Corporation workshop for chemistry and physics faculty, and administrators in Tucson.  “Models of Academic Leadership”;  August, 2004.
      • 2003 U.S. Professor of the Year (for baccalaureate colleges), awarded by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, and the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE)
      • Recipient of the Faculty Appreciation Award by the Hendrix College Class of 2002 and the Class of 2003 for "excellence in instruction and concern for students’ welfare"
      • Visiting Fellow, Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra (with Professor Martin Banwell), June, 2000
      • Awarded 1998 David W. Mellor Medal for Chemical Education by the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, and delivered the Mellor Address
      • 1993 Chair, Gordon Research Conference on Heterocyclic Compounds
      • American Chemical Society
      • Phi Beta Kappa
      • Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) (President, 1992-93)
      • Founding Co-Editor, CUR Quarterly, 1993-1996
      • Recipient, Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation Scholar/Fellow Program for Undergraduate Institutions (1989)
      • Signal Officers Basic Training, U.S. Army, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 3 months, fall 1973 (4 years of Army ROTC, Ouachita Baptist University, 1965-1969; Honorable Discharge from U.S. Army Reserves as a Captain, 1977).

      Publications

      • Goodwin, T. E., Harelimana, I. H., MacDonald, L. J., Mark, D. B., Umuhire Juru, A., Yin, Q., Engman, J. A., Kopper, R. A., Lichti, C. F., Mackintosh, S. F., Shoemaker, J. D., Sutherland, M. V., Tackett, A. J., Schulte, B. A. 2015. The Role of Bacteria in Chemical Signals of Elephant Musth: Proximate Causes and Biochemical Pathways. Chapter 6 in Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13, 2015 B. A. Schulte, M. H. Ferkin and T. E. Goodwin, Eds., Springer Press, NY, In Press.
      • Rasmussen, L. E. L., Greenwood, D. R., Goodwin, T. E., and Schulte, B. A. 2015 Asian Elephant Reflections: Chirality Counts. Chapter 17 in Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13, B. A. Schulte, M. H. Ferkin and T. E. Goodwin, Eds., Springer Press, NY, In Press.
      • Pugh, C. P., Pouncey, D. L., Hartman, J. H., Nshimiyimana, R., Desrochers, L. P., Goodwin, T. E., Boysen, G., & Miller, G. P. 2014. Multiple UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver microsomes glucuronidate both R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin into two metabolites. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 564: 244–253.Morelli, T. L., Hayes, R. A., Nahrung, H. F., Goodwin, T. E., Harelimana, I. H., Macdonald, L. J., & Wright, P. C. 2013. Relatedness communicated in lemur scent. Naturwissenschaften 100:769-777.
      • delBarco-Trillo, J., Harelimana, I. H., Goodwin, T. E., & Drea, C. M. 2013. Chemical differences between voided and bladder urine in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis): Implications for olfactory communication studies. Am. J. Primatol. 75:695-702.
      • Drea, C. M., Boulet, M., DelBarco-Trillo, J., Greene, L. K., Sacha, C. R., Goodwin, T. E., & Dubay, G. R. 2013. The ‘secret’ in secretions: Methodological considerations in deciphering primate olfactory communication. Am. J. Primatol. 75:621-642.
      • “Hemiterpenoids and Pyrazines in the Odoriferous Urine of the Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus,” T. E. Goodwin, N. Songsasen, L. J. Broederdorf, B. A. Burkert, C. J. Chen, S.R. Jackson, B. Keplinger, M. E. Rountree, Z. J. Waldrip, M. E. Weddell, L. P. Desrochers, W. K. Baker Jr and J. P. F. G. Helsper, Chapter 13 in Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 12, 2013 M. I. East and M. Dehnhard, Eds., Springer Press, NY, pp 171-184.
      • Goodwin, T.E., Broederdorf, L.J., Burkert, B.A., Hirwa, H.H., Mark, D.B., Waldrip, Z.J., Kopper, R.A., Sutherland, M.V. , Freeman, E.W., Hollister-Smith, J.A., and Schulte, B.A. 2012. Chemical signals of elephant musth: Temporal aspects of microbially-mediated modifications. J. Chem. Ecol. 38:81-87.
      • Goodwin, T.E. 2012. The Art of Organic Synthesis: Green Chemists Find a Better Way, in Chemistry for Changing Times. J. W. Hill, T. W. McCreary, D. K. Kolb. 13th edition. New York: Pearson, p. 254.
      • Delbarco-Trillo, J., Burkert, B. A., Goodwin, B. A., & Drea, C. M. 2011. Night and day: the comparative study of strepsirrhine primates reveals socioecological and phylogenetic patterns in olfactory signals. J. Evol. Biol. 24:82-98.
      • Merte, C.E., Goodwin, T.E., & Schulte, B.A. 2010. Male and female developmental differences in chemosensory investigations by African elephants (Loxodonta africana) approaching waterholes. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 64:401-408.
      • Broederdorf, L.J., Meyer, J.M., Freeman, E.W., Goodwin, T.E., & Schulte, B.A. 2009. The elephants of Addo: An undergraduate research adventure. J. Eleph. Managers Assoc. 20:27-31.
      • Meyer, J.M., Freeman, E.W., Goodwin, T.E., & Schulte, B.A. 2009. Monitoring African elephant chemical communication and hormone activity in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. J. Eleph. Managers Assoc. 20:32-36.
      • Goodwin, T.E. The Garden of Green Organic Chemistry at Hendrix College. In Changing the Course of Chemistry: Green Chemistry Education; Anastas, P.T., Levy, I.J., Parent, K.E., Eds.; ACS Symposium Series 1011; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2009; pp 37-53.
      • Goodwin, T.E. & Schulte, B.A. 2009. Prospecting for mammalian chemical signals via solventless extraction techniques: an elephantine task. ChemoSense, 11(2), 9-15.
      • McKenzie, L.C.; Huffman, L.M.; Hutchison, J.E.; Rogers, C.E.; Goodwin, T.E.; and Spessard, G.O. 2009. Greener Solutions for the Organic Chemistry Teaching Lab: Exploring the Advantages of Alternative Reaction Media. J. Chem. Educ., 86, 488-493.
      • Loizi, H., Goodwin, T.E., Rasmussen, L.E.L., Whitehouse, A.M. & Schulte, B.A. 2009. Sexual dimorphism in the performance of chemosensory investigatory behaviours by African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Behaviour, 146, 373-392.
      • "Intrasexual chemical communication and social responses of captive female African elephants, Loxodonta africana" Meyer, J.M.; Goodwin, T.E.; Schulte, B.A. Animal Behavior 2008, 76, 163-174.
      • Castelda, S.M., Goodwin, T.E. & Schulte, B.A. 2008. Investigating chemical signals in African elephants for convergence with insects and similarities with Asian elephants. Pp. 81-91, in: Proceedings of the 2007 International Elephant Conservation & Research Symposium, Orlando, FL.
      • "Use of Automated Solid Phase Dynamic Extraction (SPDE)/GC-MS and Novel Macros in the Search for African Elephant Pheromones," T. E. Goodwin, P. A. Brown, M. S. Eggert, M. G. Evola, S. J. House, R. G. Morshedi, M. E. Weddell, C. J. Chen, S. R. Jackson, Y. Aubut, J. Eggert, B. A. Schulte, L. E. L. Rasmussen, Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 11 2007 J. Hurst, R. Beynon, T. Wyatt, & C. Roberts, Eds., Springer Press, NY, pp 25-35.
      • "Honest Signalling through Chemicals by Elephants with Applications for Care and Conservation", Schulte, B. A.; Freeman, E. W.; Goodwin, T. E.; Hollister-Smith, J.; Rasmussen, L.E.L. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2007, 102, 344-363.
      • "Insect Pheromones and Precursors in Female African Elephant Urine", Goodwin, T. E.; Eggert, M. S.; House, S. J.; Weddell, M. E.; Schulte, B. A.; Rasmussen, L. E. L., Journal of Chemical Ecology 2006, 32, 1849-1853.
      • "Palladium-catalysed Cross-coupling and Related Reactions Involving Pyrroles" Banwell, M. G.; Goodwin, T. E.; Ng, S.; Smith, J. A.; Wong, D. J. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2006, 14, 3043-3060.
      • "Male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can distinguish oestrous status via urinary signals", Bagley, K. R.; Goodwin, T. E.; Rasmussen, L. E. L.; Schulte, B. A. Animal Behaviour 2006, 71, 1439-1445.
      • "African Elephant Chemical Communication and Humans in Tanzania", Schulte, B. A.; Napora, E.; Vyas, D.K.; Goodwin, T. E.; Rasmussen, L. E. L. J. Elephant Managers Association 2006, 17, 28.
      • "African elephant births and post-partum events in West Kilimanjaro, Tanzania", Vyas, D. K.; Goodwin, T. E.; Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Schulte, B. A. J. Elephant Managers Association 2006, 16, 30.
      • "Elephant Death Possibly by Constipation", Vyas, D. K.; Goodwin, T. E.; Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Schulte, B. A. Pachyderm 2005, 39, 93-96.
      • "Chemical Analysis of Preovulatory Female African Elephant Urine: A Search for Putative Pheromones", Goodwin, T. E.; Rasmussen, L. E.L.; Schulte, B. A.; Brown, P. A.; Davis, B. L.; Dill, W. M.; Dowdy, N. C.; Hicks, A. R.; Morshedi, R. G.; Mwanza, D.; Loizi, H., Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 10 2005, R. T. Mason, M. P. LeMaster, and D. Muller-Schwarze, eds., Springer, NY, pp 128-139.
      • "Hormone Receptor Expression in Interdigital Glands of the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)", Lamps, L. W.; Smoller, B. R.; Goodwin, T. E.; Rasmussen, L. E. L., Zoo Biology 2004, 23, 463-469.
      • "An Asymptotic Approach to the Development of a Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory", Goodwin, T. E., J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1187-1190.
      • "Elephant Chemotactile Communication and Conservation", Schulte, B. A.; Loizi, H.; Bagley, K.; Gray, A.; Stanley, L.; Correll, M.; Goodwin, T. E.; Brown, P. A.; Davis, B. L.; Dill, W. M.; Dowdy, N. C.; Hicks, A. R.; Morshedi, R. G.; Mwanza, D.; Rasmussen, L. E. L. J. Elephant Managers Assoc. 2004, 15, 16-23.
      • "African Elephant Sesquiterpenes. II. Identification and Synthesis of New Derivatives of 2,3-Dihydrofarnesol", Goodwin, T. E.; Brown, F. D.; Counts, R. W.; Dowdy, N. C.; Fraley, P. L.; Hughes, R. A.; Liu, D. Z.; Mashburn, C. D.; Rankin, J. D.; Roberson, R. S.; Wooley, K. D.; Rasmussen, E. L.; Riddle, S. W.; Riddle, H. S.; Schulz, S. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1319-1322.
      • "Initial Studies on the Source and Cyclic Release Pattern of (Z)-7-Dodecenyl Acetate, the Preovulatory Pheromone of Female Asian Elephants," L. E. L. Rasmussen and T. E. Goodwin, Chem. Senses 2000, 25, 603.
      • "Characterization of Interdigital Glands in the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)", L. W. Lamps, B. R. Smoller, L.E.L. Rasmussen, B. E. Slade, G. Fritsch, and T. E. Goodwin Research in Veterinary Science 2001, 71, 197-200.
      • "Unwinding of Unnatural Substrates by a DNA Helicase", A. J. Tackett, P. D. Morris, R. Dennis, T. E. Goodwin, K. D. Raney, Biochemistry 2001, 40, 543-548.
      • "Enhanced Pneumocystis carinii Activity of New Primaquine Analogs", T. E. Goodwin, C. J. Boylan, W. L. Current, J. C. Byrd, C. B. Edwards, D. A. Fuller, J. L. Green, C. D. Larocca, K. D. Raney, A. S. Ross, and W. A. Tucker, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letters 2000, 10, 2205-2208.
      • "The First Disclosure and Preliminary Investigation of a Liquid Released from the Ears of African Elephants", H. S. Riddle, S. W. Riddle, L. E. L. Rasmussen, and T. E. Goodwin, Zoo Biology 2000, 19, 475-480.
      • "Synthesis of 13C,2H3-Salmeterol: An Analytical Internal Standard for Pharmacokinetic Studies," T. E. Goodwin, X. Zhou, P. A. Haile, P. Breen, P. J. Anderson, F. C. Hiller, and C. M. Compadre Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, 2000, 43, 65-75.
      • "African Elephant Sesquiterpenes," T. E. Goodwin, L. E. L. Rasmussen, A. C. Guinn, S. S. McKelvey, R. Gunawardena, S. W. Riddle, and H. S. Riddle Journal of Natural Products, 1999, 62, 1570-1572.
      • "A Multistep Synthesis of 4-Nitro-1-Ethynylbenzene Involving Palladium-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation, Conformational Analysis Using NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling, Acetal Hydrolysis, and Oxidative Decarbonylation," T. E. Goodwin, E. M. Hurst, and A. S. Ross J. Chem. Educ.1999, 76, 74-75.
      • "Observations on the Stereochemistry of Reduction of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanones," T. E. Goodwin, J. M. Meacham, M. E. Smith Canadian J. Chem.1998, 76, 1308-1311.
      • "A Simple Procedure for Solid Phase Synthesis of Peptide Nucleic Acids with N-Terminal Cysteine," T. E. Goodwin, R. D. Holland, J. O. Lay, Jr., and K. D. Raney Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.1998, 8, 2231-2234.
      • "Synthesis of Conformationally Mobile Bicyclic Tetrahydro-1,2-Oxazines by Isomerization of Isoxazolidinylmethyl Tosylates," T. E. Goodwin, D. M. Cousins, S. D. Debenham, J. L. Green, M. L. Guyer, E. G. Jacobs, T. R. Hoye, D. O. Koltun, and J. R. Vyvyan J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 4485-4488.
      • "Synthesis of Highly Phenylated Poly(p-phenylene vinylenes) via a Chlorine Precursor Route," B. R. Hsieh, W. C. Wan, Y. Yu, Y. Gao, T. E. Goodwin, S. A. Gonzalez, and W. A. Feld Macromolecules 1998, 31, 631-636.
      • "Synthesis of Two New Maytansinoid Model Compounds from Carbohydrate Precursors," T. E. Goodwin, K. R. Cousins, H. M. Crane, P. O. Eason, T. E. Freyaldenhoven, C. C. Harmon, B. K. King, C. D. Larocca, R. L. Lile, S. G. Orlicek, R. W. Pelton, O. L. Shedd, J. S. Swanson, and J. W. Thompson J. Carbohydr. Chem.1998, 17, 323-339.
      • "Crystal Structure of (4α,4aα,8aα)-(+)-Octahydro-2-(phenylmethyl)--2H-1,2-benzoxazin-4-ol, 4-Methylbenzenesulfonate (ester)," W. Cordes, J. L. Smith, M. C. Noble, T. E. Goodwin, D. M. Cousins, and E. G. Jacobs J. Chem. Cryst.1998, 28, 133-137.
      • "How to Get Started in Research," a booklet published by the Council on Undergraduate Research, 1995 (Co-authored and edited with B. Holmes, UNC-Asheville) [2nd Edition, 1999].
      • "Notes from a Fledgling Elephant Researcher," T. E. Goodwin Journal of the Elephant Manager’s Association 1997, 8, 42.
      • Synthesis of Highly Phenylated Poly(p-phenylenevinylenes) via Halogen Precursor Route (HPR)," S. A. Gonzalez, T. E. Goodwin, W. A. Feld, and B. R. Hsieh Polymer Preprints 1997, 38, April Issue.
      • "Stereoselectivity Reversals in Conjugate Additions to a 2,3-Dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one," T. E. Goodwin, N. M. Rothman, K. L. Salazar, S. L. Sorrels, and F. E. Evans J. Org. Chem.1992, 57, 2469-2471.
      • "Preparation of an Aromatic Synthon for Maytansinoid Synthesis," T. E. Goodwin, S. G. Orlicek, N. R. Adams, L. A. Covey-Morrison, J. S. Jenkins, and G. L. Templeton J. Org. Chem.1985, 50, 5889-5892.
      • "Stereoselective addition of organocopper reagents to a novel carbohydrate-derived 2,3-dihydro-4H-pyran-4-one," T. E. Goodwin, C. M. Crowder, R. B.White, J. S. Swanson, F. E. Evans, and W. L. Meyer J. Org. Chem.1983, 48, 376-380.
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